Pharaoh's Nile boats
navigation with daggerboars or dipping steer-oar
An explication specially for a comming Abora expedition
Now you move your sailcenter to the other side by brasing around your sail - and all the while you swing around the yard, the boat synchronous will turn. You will feel it as your brases are turning the boat and not the sail.
Technical explanation: Too under brasing, the wind - just as always - will blow the sail center downwind the water centre
Now you have turned (weered) your reed boat or pharaohnic wooden and you have to enter on your new course.
That you do by balancing the leeway of aft-end, as you controll yourself by lifting (or dipping) your steeroar - balancing it against the leeway of fore end, where the bow is caught by the instreaming water.
After balancing your course, you can tie the shaft of the steearoar to the pool again, because the craft is self-correcting - just as a windvane.
Note the difference for same turn-manoeuvre "stern against wind":
A "for and aft" rigged boat as gybe or jibe has to swing the boom across (uncontrolled against wind) over to the other side.
A square rigged sailer weer (brace) under full controll.
And this difference is the reason, why oceangoing "for and aft" sailers prefer to tack and the square sailers prefer to weer. In that way both have chosen the safer and less violent turn-manoeuvre for each types of crafts.
And as I see it (without reed-raft experience) the WEER-manoeuvre is specially apted for reed-raft with her lonely square sail and relative high gravitation-centre en relation to Meta-centre, due to no ballast is placed in bottom of any hull, but furthermore all gargo is placed on a deck on the top of the two reed bunches.
These observations does that we are NOT convinced, that their steerors were twisted.
That brings in the idea, that the egyptians sailing by sail used to tilt and not turn their steeroar, when they needed to adjust their course.
'Ballanced side-sliding' we explained earlier, and just in same way the egyptians could have done navigating their boats.
The balanced sidegliding could have been a useful technology too for the old Nile sailing. If equipped with two sidemounted steeroars, probably only the lee oar was employed, and just of same reason as Dirch demonstrated earlier with his dipping steeroar pressed to boat by the water.
When a drawing show three steer oars, these probably was set down in acordance with need 1,2 or 3 - but in the depicted case, a man with braces in hand indicate us, that this boat is under a turn (weer), and that justify a maximum water resistance CLR plunged down aft.
That bring in the understanding, that the pharaohnic steeroar really was a dipping steeroar, as was fixed in the stern and with the shaft sustained, pressed by the waterpress on the oar blade against the wind side of a short pool placed aft.
'Balanced leeway' we call it, talking steer principles
If it really is a dipping oar, that tell us, that such Pharaohnic boats didn't tack - they weered.
They weered by dipping the steeroar deeper, and this action forced the aft-end upwind, and they could swing the sail around with the boat. In the moment of turnning sail over, they guide the shaft of steeroar up and over to the other side of the pool. And so they were sailing on the other bow!
Only technical condition for 'balanced leeway': to sail by sail.
What they did only rowing is not clear - but rowing has not the same need for a rudder, as long at the rowers are within direct voice contact with the commanding officer.
Pharaohnic Nile conclusion
Just as Dirch used his dipping oar at preceding photo - the egyptians could have done likewise.
The balanced sidegliding could have been a useful technology too for the old Nile sailing.
I have no idea if the model-boat for the reed rafts of Thor Heyerdahl was of same kind, but his reed raft is told to come from the Upper Nile of Sudan. Furthermore the system of double steeroar looks like the oldtimers - but the steer oars are at RA II mounted with tillers as we can't see on the old paintings. Neverthemind - who knows - Heyerdahl too discovered his Guarasteering after his Kon-tiki raid.
Thor Heyerdahl sailed mainly his reed rafts downwind, when crossing the oceans, and with two steeroars aft, then he at least had moved backwards the CLR - and furthermore because the RA2-photo show the mast relatively ahead, then he cleverly too stabilized his sailing moving the windcenter CE ahead.
Perhaps by using the Pharaohnic principle with a short pool to sustain the shaft of his long steer-oar, Thor Heyerdahl navigating Kon-tiki in 1947 could have used less forces by dipping the same oar than to angel it, as he did. But he didn't know that, because he had still not learned about the function of his Guaras.